Nepal Journal of Science and Technology is the first journal brought out by the Royal Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (RONAST). The publication is envisaged to serve as a forum for the dissemination of the results and achievements of various research and development (R&D) programs carried out in Nepali context. It aims to accommodate all fields of science and technology viz. agriculture and animal science, biological science, engineering and technology, environment and nature conservation, forestry, health and medicine, physical science etc. The journal publishes original research papers, critical reviews, technical reports, and notes and comments. Manuscripts are judged on the basis of the contribution of original data and ideas or interpretation. Manuscripts are edited where necessary for clarity and economy.