With unprecedented access to technology, those at the grassroots can now tell their own stories direct to a world stage. How does this challenge perceptions of development? And what does this mean for the traditional story-tellers – journalists, photographers, film-makers and charities?
The evening will feature a keynote speaker and expert panel debate, with plenty of opportunity for guests to meet people from different disciplines, explore the exhibition, and enjoy complimentary drinks and nibbles inspired by the six countries that feature in the project.
Meet those experiencing these changes first-hand.
This exhibition hosted at the Royal Geographical Society and in partnership with PhotoVoice showcases photographs and narratives by community memebers in China, Ethiopia, Ghana, Nepal, Peru and Tunisia who were supported by PhotoVoice to share their views on what's working and why.
Areas explored by local community members include education, maternal health, political voice, urban poverty, women’s empowerment, water management and renewable energy.
Join us for the launch of the Humanitarian Exchange on Typhoon Haiyan, where we’ll hear about ways to build a culture of accountability to affected populations, enhance two-way communications with communities and ensure that early-warning systems are communicated effectively to those most at risk.
Various studies indicate that mortality in Pakistan declined sharply in the early half of this century and the decline continued until the 1960s. Since then there has been a levelling-off in mortality, apparent in estimates of the crude death rate as well as in the infant mortality rate. According to estimates, the crude death rate stalled at a high level of 12 per 1000 population, and infant mortality rate at an unacceptably high level of 106 per 1000 live births (Sathar, 1985; UNICEF, 1991). Statistics available for 1989 showed that infant and childhood deaths constitute almost three-fourths of the total deaths in the country leading to an under-5 mortality rate of 162 per 1000 live births (UNICEF, 1991).
In view of the dearth of in-depth analysis on child mortality in Pakistan, this study is specifically conducted to
- identify some of the major covariates of child mortality amongst children less than five years
- evolve some of the processes and the underlying mechanisms through which a relationship is established between child mortality and its covariates
The basic purpose is to elucidate the ‘cause and effect' relationship for any optimal policy direction and thereafter, effective implementation of the policies formulated.
The analysis of the data, based on both statistical and observational methods, reveals that:
- sustained high level of child mortality is related to high fertility and other related factors
- the most significant variable correlated with child survival was the number of children ever borne
- demographic variables like the mother’s age at birth, order of birth and birth interval between the preceding and the succeeding child constitute some of the important associates of child mortality
- culturally specified norms of early marriage and non-use of contraception favour larger family size
- all the three variables included in the study to measure the household’s hygienic environment were independently significantly associated with child mortality
- the homes of the educated scored better than those of the uneducated
As a matter of national policy, the study recommends that the government of Pakistan:
- redress its Family Planning Programme which was initiated more than 30 years ago but has been unable to achieve the objective of lowering the population growth rate to a manageable size
- in an attempt to bring about a demographic change, take into account the social significance of female literacy and education (the lowest even when compared to the South-Asian countries) which, as this study suggests, is central to lowering fertility, mortality and morbidity and acts as an agent of change in every sphere of life
The invention of writing created grounds for sustaining a new hierarchy: that between the illiterate and the literate. Literacy also made the keeping of permanent records possible and so extended control over people. Since it also created bodies of knowledge, it also extended human control over nature. Thus, the written word made more systematic and thorough exploitation of human beings and nature possible and legitimised them in the name of merit, technical expertise and science.
The standardisation of a variety of a language was a political act which devalued all the other varieties and their speakers. Those who used only the non-standard varieties – dialects, `restricted codes’, such as working class people use, or indigenous languages in ex-colonies English (had limited and more difficult access to positions of power, affluence and prestige). Thus, despite having broken old hierarchies and giving power to some low-status people, linguistic practices really served to rationalise and maintain inequalities. Above all, since science is created in Western languages it does not transcend the Western world view. When this `science’ regards all other knowledge-systems as unscientific and hence `unreasonable’, it rationalizes intervention in the lives of human beings by placing them outside the very pale of humanity.
[Summary adapted from author]
The World Survey on the Role of Women in Development is a UN Secretary-General report mandated by the Second Committee of the General Assembly and comes out every five years. The 2014 report focuses on gender equality and sustainable development, with chapters on the green economy and care work, food security, population dynamics, and investments for gender-responsive sustainable development. The report comes at a crucial moment, as the global community grapples with the definition of the Sustainable Development Goals and the emergence of the post-2015 framework. Against this context, World Survey 2014 asserts the central role of gender equality in charting the rationale and the actions necessary to achieve sustainable development. The World Survey uses three criteria to assess whether policy actions and investments for sustainable development adequately address gender equality. Do they support women's capabilities and their enjoyment of rights? Do they reduce, rather than increase, women's unpaid care work? And do they embrace women's equal and meaningful participation as actors, leaders and decision-makers? It offers a comprehensive set of recommendations for gender-responsive policy actions and investments towards sustainable development overall, as well as for the selected areas which the World Survey emphasizes. The full report is available here.
Empirical evidence to determine the health status of children aged less than five years was gathered from an area in Rawalpindi, one of the large cities of Pakistan. Of the total 1301 children ever born to 341 ever married women aged 15-39, morbidity data was limited to the cohort of 616 children who were below the age of five at the time of the survey conducted in the first half of 1992. Two separate variables, diarrhoea and fever, were used as dependent variables to measure the overall incidence of gastro-intestinal and respiratory infections and to ascertain the pattern of morbidity.
In investigating the reasons for high levels of morbidity amongst children less than five years in Pakistan, this study aims at:
- determining the overall level of disease incidence, especially of gastro-intestinal and respiratory infections in the study area
- identifying some of the major covariates of child morbidity
- to tease out some of the mechanisms whereby a relationship is established between these illnesses and its covariates.
The results of this study suggest that there is variation in child morbidity within societies even when socio-environmental and economic conditions are held constant. This is amply demonstrated from the evidence that there was familial clustering of morbidity as a result of exposure to similar household environmental conditions and maternal child caring and rearing abilities. That child health was strongly associated with differing health beliefs and attitudes of the mothers in times of good health and sickness.
In teasing out the differences in attitudes and practices, this study finds that the factor which explains differences in the behaviour leading to a differential is the role of maternal education. The study clearly demonstrates that formal education exposes women to health and other sources of knowledge and enhances their ability to make better use of the facilities which were equally accessible to the entire study population.