Change in relationship
- In early stage of human civilization
- Heavy dependency in wild resources/raw/for survival
- In the later stage -
- domestication/processed/ subsistence/commercial purposes
- Subsistence - commerce
- Livelihood purpose - economic purpose
- No. of chicken may be many times more than jungle fowl.
- Banana and rice are more grown in the agriculture field than in the wild
- Buffalo, goat are more produced in the farm than in the forest
- Production and protection of biological resources
Socio – economic situation
- Wild resources- simply not be looked at and admired but something that (must)contribute to human livelihood
- Used both for subsistence and commerce
- Nutritional well being: Supplements seasonal food deficiency,
- Insurance against hunger: Acts as a buffer against drought and famine, food security
- Source of energy and building materials
- Preventive and curative health care
- Source of cash income
- Gross worth of a Lion in Amboseli National Park, Kenya – US$ 27, 000/year
- A elephant heard is estimated as worth as 610, 000/year
- About 50, million worth of wild meat (pig) derived every year by Sarawak Villagers in Indonesia.
- Overall 42 mammal species of international conservation concern have been identified in the commercial African bush meat trade.
- Use of wild resources in Tanzania in 1988 was estimated to US$ 120 million
Historical Change in Attitudes
What would be a gross value of a Rhino in CNP?
Use of wildlife
- Central African Republic- 30 –40 % of meat consumed is from wildlife
- Liberia- 75% of the estimated total meat production approx. 105 000 tonnes/year
- Botswana – 50 species of wild animal, 40% of diet
- Ghana – 75% of the populations depends on wildlife protein, 80% fresh meat consumed from bush meat.
- Zaire- 75% of the animal protein comes from wild animals
- Nigeria – 20% protein comes from wild animals.
- 100 million tons of wild fish harvested annually in the world
- 100, 000 tones of giants rat consumed every year in Nigeria
- Over 3 million kg of springhare are eaten every year in Botswana
Poorest suffer the most if biodiversity is lost.
- Killing wild animals: for rich – fun, for poor - food
Gender and Attitudes
In Africa, lion is the most problem animal in male perspective where as for female farmer it is elephant.
Religion and Culture
- Religion and shape our attitude and action towards nature/wildlife
- Christianity is more hostile to nature (believe on human supremacy on other living beings ('Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it'- Genesis 1:28)
- Hinduism believes on the survival rights of all living beings (Basudhiva Kutumbakam)
- Buddhism believes on non valiance and considered to be the most eco friendly religion in the world.
- Religion and cultural practices attach special values to different species. For example elephant, rat, snakes, lion, tiger
- Wildlife plays a vital role in cultural activities e.g annual hunting of Satter tribes in Nepal, Masai tribes in Kenya
Cultural views of whaling
- Immigrants exploit the wild resource indiscriminately while indigenous community lives in harmony.
- Example: Killing of American Bison to reduce food supply to Red Indians and to expand agricultural land in Great Northern Plains of USA.
- Over 8.5 million bison were shot dead in 1871-73. Boson population dropped from 60 million to 150 within 30 yrs, (1869-1889)
- 15 million passenger pigeon shipped to market in 1861
Resource Management and Governance Policies
- Establishment of PAs
- traditional users turns into poachers
- Community based resource conservation initiatives
- Community forestry programme
- BZ programme
Ethic and Education
- Human beings as a supreme creature has responsibility to save other forms of lives or not?
- Need or greed, which we want to fulfill?
- Compassion to nature
- Compulsion - Better future to coming generation
- Understanding the complex system
- Conservation – democracy of living beings including human beings
- Democracy – democracy to human beings only
- Democracy respect diversity so as conservation can succeed in democracy.
- 'Nature can fulfill everyone's needs but not their greed'- Mahatma Gandhi
- 'Humankind has not woven the web of life. We are but one thread within it. What ever we do to the web, we do to ourselves. All things are bound together All things connect….' Chief Seattle
- 'To do violence to the Earth is inevitably to do violence to its human inhabitants'- DA Coleman
- 'Civilization is a state of mutual and interdependent cooperation, between human animals, other animals, Which may disrupted at any moment by the failure of any of them' Aldo Leopold
- How we interact with wildlife influences our relationship with wildlife
- Differences exist between different cultures
- Changes take place over time
- Education, Benefits