Nepalese forests are not being managed scientifically. There is no prescribed silvicultural system in Nepal. The first attempt to introduce scientific forest management in Terai, Nepal was made by Mr. E.A. Smithies, who came to Nepal as forest advisor in 1942. A forest working scheme for the Terai forests was prepared. This working scheme introduced selection-cum-improvement system of felling the Sal Shorea robusta, Sissoo Dalbergia sissoo and other mixed hardwood. Since then several attempts were made to introduce scientific forest management.

Unfortunately, scientific system of forest management has not yet been practiced, although, many forest management plans have been prepared. Sagarnath Forest Development Project initiated the conversion of Sal forest to plantation forest by clear felling in 1979/1980 (White, 1988). Thereafter, simple coppice and coppice with standard system are applied in the area. Another attempt has been made to introduce scientific forest management by UNDP/FAO at Rautahat in 1995 and at a few districts or locations by FINNIDA.

  1. Selection System: Forest Division and Timber Corporation Nepal (TCN) implemented this system in Sal forest in Morang, Birganj and Kailali forest divisions in 2022/2023. Community Forest User Groups has been practiced the selective logging in their community forest since many years. But they and other sociologists think as the selection system.
  2. Clear felling system: Forest Management and Utilization Development Project (FMUDP)/ HMG did a trial of clear felling with advance regeneration of Sal forest in Manahari, Makawanpur district, Bara and Rautahat district (HMG/ FINNIDA, 1995). Sagarnath Forest Development Project (SEDP), Ratuwa Mai Plantation Project and Nepalgang Plantation Project converted the high Sal forest to plantation forest by clear felling (White, 1988). Actually it is not a clear felling system but it is a conversion.
  3. Coppice with standard: It was also applied by FMUDP/HMGN in Makawanpur, Bara and Rautahat district leaving the 25 and 75 trees/ha as standard in different plots.
  4. Simple Coppice system: Sagarnath Forest Development Project has applied this system in Eucalyptus species to produce fuel wood and electric poles as well. This system is suited in this locality and for this species also. Forest Research Division (FRD) of the Department of Forest Research and Survey (DFRS) established the research plots for Terai Sal forest in Jogikuti of Butwal of Rupandehi district in 1998, Chukibari, Dharan of Sunsari district and Ratomate, Hetauda of Makawanpur district in 1989 respectively (FRD, 1991).


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