The silvicultural system in which the crop is regenerated mainly from stool coppice and with short rotation is known to be coppice system. Reproduction is obtained from the shoots arising from the adventitious buds of the stump of felled trees. Coppice systems are further classified on the basis of pattern of felling and mode of regeneration as well
1. Simple coppice system
A silvicultural system based on stool coppice in which the old crop is clear felled completely with no reservation.
Pattern of felling in simple coppice system consists in clear felling a fixed area annually. Area of coppice coupe = 1/n x total area, where n is the number of years in rotation.
|Simple coppice system|
Season for coppicing
- The best season for coppicing is a little before the growth start in spring because at this time there is a large reserve food material in roots which is utilized by the coppice shoots.
- During the dormancy period. (from Nov. – Feb./March)
Method of felling
- The stump should neither be too low nor too high.
- The lower the stump, the better it is for coppice shoot.
- But if the trees are cut very low there is a danger of the stump splitting and or drying up from top.
- On the other hand, the higher the stumps, the greater the possibility of shoots being damaged by wind or animals.
- Stumps are usually kept, 15-25 cm high. (10 cm for eucalyptus)
2. Coppice with standard system
It is silvicultural system based on stool coppice in which over wood of standards, usually of seedling origin and composed of trees of various ages, is kept over coppice for a period of multiple coppice rotation. It is usually applied in shade- tolerant species.
|Coppice with standard|
Purpose of standards: (i) To supply large size timber (ii) To protection against frost (iii) To enrichment of coppice (iv) To provide seedling regeneration (v) To increase in revenue
- There is greater protection to the soil.
- Advantage of heavy shelterwood felling and selection system.
- Standards serve as seed bearers and provide seed.
- The investment is small and the net return is higher.
- Aesthetically superior than simple coppice.
- It requires great skill in maintaining correct balance between standards and coppice and between standards of different age classes.
- This is a combination of simple coppice system and high forest system with the advantage of none.
- It has an exhaustive effect on soil.
- Felling and extraction cost is higher than high forest
3. Coppice with reserve system
A silvicultural system in which felling is done only in suitable areas likely to benefit, after reserving all financially immature growth of principal as well as other valuable miscellaneous species, either singly or in optimally spaced groups, trees yielding products of economic importance and protective reasons, first introduced in 1934-35.
|Reservation by area|
Pattern of felling: In this system, the emphasis is not on felling but on conservation. Distinguish areas which, require protection or some improvement felling and areas in which felling can be done according to the requirement of crop, local people, and site. Then felling may be from clear felling to practically no felling by reserving all trees, which may depend on areas or trees.
Tending: Tending should be done-clearing, climber cutting, and reduction of coppice shoots. Recently rotation has been discarded and suggested to work the forests on felling cycle of 10-15 years.
Character of the crop: The resultant crop under this system comprises of irregular groups of even aged coppice with uneven aged reserve crop scattered irregularly. Thus, taking the crop as whole, it is uneven aged.
- It helps in improving the quality of locality as a result of soil and moisture conservation, maintenance of crop mixture.
- It helps in improving the condition and composition of crop.
- It fulfills the needs of local population and the requirement of industries.
- It avoids the sacrifice of financially immature crop whose value increases. Thus it offers best financial returns per unit area.
- Its execution requires a high degree of skill.
- Reservation of a large number of trees affects coppice growth adversely
Conditions of applicability
- When the crop varies greatly in density, composition, and quality and proportion of valuable species is low.
- When most of the species are good coppicers and the coppicing power of most valuable species is vigorous.
- When valuable species in the crop is light demanders.
Coppice with reserves system is not suitable:
- When valuable species are shade bears and frost tenders.
- When there is likelihood of invasion of fast growing obnoxious weeds, shrubs, and grasses such as Lantana, and Imperata.
- When the crop does not contain valuable species and there is no hope to improving it by coppicing.
- When it is not possible to protect the area against fire and grazing at least for five years after main felling.
4. Coppice of two rotations system
A coppice system based on stool coppice in which after the initial coppicing of the crop at the beginning of the first rotation, part of the crop is not coppiced to produce large sized timber. The number of trees so reserved from being coppiced again in the second rotation, depends on the quantity of large sized timber required in the market.
5. Shelterwood coppice system
A coppice system in which even in the initial coppicing, shelter wood (of almost 125 to 150 trees per ha) is retained for frost protection. It is specially suited to frost tender species in frosty localities and forest hardy species, promising are selected, which are removed gradually when the coppice shoots are fully established and are free from frost danger. When coppice shoots are 5 years old, the shelter trees are to be reduced to 63 to 75 and after 10 years , all the shelter trees are removed. The resultant crop is even aged.
6. Coppice selection system
A coppice system in which fellings are carried out on the principles of selection system, but regeneration is obtained by coppice. The resultant crop is uneven aged can be suitably applied in Acacia species and also applied for the management of small area of poor quality shorea forest. In this system, the forest is divided into a number of annual coupes equal to number to the years in felling cycle. Only those trees which have attained the exploitable diameter fixed quite low are removed in main felling. 7. The Pollard System Pollard is defined as a tree whose stem are cut off in order to obtain a flush of shoots, usually above the height to which the browsing animals can reach. This system is suitable when demand of fuelwood and fodder is high. For example, salix, Hardwickia binata, etc species are suited for pollarding, which have high coppicing power.