The Himalayan region of Nepal is biologically rich with a wealth of high value medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs). The research entitled "An Assessment of Status and Antibacterial Properties of Dactylorhiza hatagirea in Annapurna Conservation Area (A case study of Paplekharka, Lete VDC, Mustang)" was conducted to assess status of Dactylorhiza hatagirea in Paplekharka, high altitudinal open grassland of lower Mustang, Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal and to evaluate its antibacterial activity.
The status of D. hatagirea was estimated through medicinal herbs inventory data whereas its antibacterial activity was determined based on laboratory analysis. The frequency and relative frequency of D. hatagirea were found to be 71% and 17% respectively. The number of D. hatagirea was found to be 1671 per hectare whereas, the density was found to be 0.17 individuals per square meter. In comparison to other species, the relative density of D. hatagirea was found to be 9%.
The study also focuses on the exploration of antibacterial properties of extracts of D. hatagirea rhizome and aerial part prepared separately with petrol ether, chloroform, methanol and water against five bacteria for the determination of Zone of Inhibition (ZOI) and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The ZOI of chloroform extract of aerial part of D. hatagirea against Escherichia coli was found to be 14 mm, whereas that of water extract of rhizome against Shigella flexinerai was found to be 13 mm. Comparing the ZOIs between the two parts of D. hatagirea, the rhizome part was found to be more effective than the aerial part against all tested organisms except E. coli. Similarly, the MIC value of chloroform extract of aerial part of the plant was found to be 125 mg/ml against E. coli, whereas that of aqueous extract of rhizome against Sh. flexinerai was found to be 62.5 mg/ml. This plant can be a potential source for evolving newer antimicrobial compounds for treating dysentery caused by E. coli.