This study is done as partial fulfillment for the Post Graduate Diploma Course in Participatory Forest Management. It is being written on the above mentioned topic since rattan (cane) is one of the most important Non Wood Forest Products (NWFP) for the people of Bhutan especially to the rural folk and businessmen as well. It has potential to add some economic returns for the aforesaid communities. Benefits from cane can help to contribute for poverty elevation of the country which is one of the objectives of the Millennium Development Goal as a whole. Thus keeping this in mind it is much important to record and do inventory of all the possible viable cane species of the country so as to conserve its gene pool in natural environment state. It is also require understanding the ecology of the species to well equip ourselves in maintaining its natural habitats. Contrary, the resource assessment for the cane stock is felt crucial necessities for the resource sustainability along with management and beneficial utilization. Therefore, this study tries to show the diversity of canes, listing all encountered species in Bhutan with its general ecology. In addition to this, the study also tries to design and adopt the systematic methodology for the assessment of available cane resources in the wild. The method is mostly focused for the Plectocomia himalayana species.