Large polypots, 4 inch x 7 inch (10 cm x 18 cm) lay-flat should be used, with 20-25 per cent compost added to the potting mixture. The seed may be sown directly into the pots, at two seeds per pot; if more than one seed per pot germinates the surplus seedlings may be pricked out into another pot, or otherwise thrown away. The seeds should be covered with about 3 mm of soil, or a mulch. An alternative method is to sow the seed at the rate of 1 kg m-2 in raised beds; the seedlings should be pricked out when they are about 5 cm tall, 3-4 weeks later.
The short viability of the seed dictates the sowing date, just before the onset of the monsoon. This will produce plantable seedlings, which should be 20-25 cm tall or more, by the next monsoon. The seedlings are fairly robust, and two or three weeks after the seed has germinated, shade against sun and rain is no longer needed; however protection from frost is necessary where this is a hazard. The seed and young seedlings also need protection against rodents. A strong orange-coloured taproot is developed and frequent root pruning is necessary. This should begin in September or October, depending on growth. It is not necessary in winter, but should begin again in March, and repeated at least once a month, until the seedlings are planted out; during periods of rapid growth more frequent root pruning may be needed. Seedlings should be spaced out with 5-10 cm between the rows not later than March or April. Regular watering, once a day, preferably in the evening, is needed. In nurseries at higher altitudes the leaves may become yellow and the shoots die back during cold weather.
Stumps are reported to have been successful, but no details are available (Mader and Stewart, 1983). Root cuttings approximately 5 cm long from the taproots of nursery seedlings have also succeeded (Mader and Stewart, 1983; Tengnas, 1981). According to G.B. Rimal (1984) best results are obtained from root cuttings taken in Chaitra (March-April). Early attempts to root stem cuttings were largely unsuccessful (Napier, 1988; Sharpe, 1984c; Tyystjarvi, 1981), but later, at Hetauda, A.V. Parajuli (1988) succeeded in rooting 46 per cent of cuttings taken in March, and 31 per cent in February. Best results were from cuttings 20 cm long, with at least three buds, taken from the lower part of the stems of 1.5-year-old seedlings.