In many parts of Nepal it is one of the most important fodder trees. The leaves contain 14-17 per cent crude protein, though its digestibility is only about 12 per cent. The metabolizable energy content is high. The tannin content is moderate, reaching a peak in February and March (Wood et al., 1992). Buffaloes allowed to feed on it ad lib, in addition to their normal ration, ate an average of 8.5 kg per day, and increased their milk yields by an average of 0.25 kg per day as a result (N.P. Shrestha and Pakhrin, 1988). Some farmers in Dhading District, however, said there were health hazards if it was fed during the time of new flushing of the leaves during the pre-monsoon period (Upadhyay, 1991).
Fodder yields in Lamjung District were estimated to average 125 kg green weight of fodder per tree annually (K.P. Gajurel et al., 1987). Against this T. J. Wormald et al. (1983) estimated annual dry leaf yield at 3 kg from trees 20 cm in diameter, 19 kg from those 30 cm in diameter, and 25 kg from those 40 cm in diameter. In Dhading District it was the most used species obtained from farmland (Upadhyay, 1991). Farmers valued it for its fast growth. high production of foliage. relatively light competition with agricultural crops. and to a lesser extent for its nutritional value. At Ratnapuri at the foot of the Siwaliks it was of minor importance; there it was lopped mainly in the post-monsoon period, but with some use at other periods of the year. In Sunderbazar, Lamjung District, it formed 9.5 per cent of the fodder trees in the village studied. and produced about nine per cent of the tree fodder consumed. The main lopping period was between mid-March and mid-May (K.P. Gajurel et al., 1987). In Rahi. Pokhara Forestry Division, it formed nearly nine per cent of the fodder trees on farmers' land; there it was lopped between September and February (Hawkins and Malla, 1983). In Dolakha District it formed three per cent of the stock of fodder trees. but was fourth in popularity among farmers, and the second most popular tree to be planted by them (Robinson and Neupane. 1988). In Lalitpur District it is mainly important between 650 and 1250 m; in February 80 per cent of farmers there were lopping it, and there was also a good deal cut in November-December. and slightly less in April (Upton, 1990). In the same district it was being planted by farmers. though on a rather small scale and with moderate to poor survival rates (Hausler, 1990). It is also an important fodder at Lumle and Pakhribas. and generally in its main range of occurrence. between 500 and 1500 m. The wood is used for agricultural implements; it weighs about 610 kg m-3.