Tree information

Local name: 

sano banjh (सानो बाँझ)






A. Camus



Similar to Q. lanata, but the leaves have dense, white, woolly hairs beneath, not rust-coloured.


A medium-sized tree, usually attaining about 15 m in height, occasionally 24 m. Young seedlings up to two years old are very shade-tolerant, thereafter the tree needs moderate to full light It needs moderately fertile soils, growing well on clays derived from shales and clay loams, but does not do well on dry sites. It is sensitive to fires and browsing. Up to a diameter of 25-30 cm the tree coppices well, but larger trees coppice badly if at all. It is one of the species found in regrowth of degraded Schima-Castanopsis woodland.


In a belt between 1650 and 2400 m, associated with Q. lanata. West of the Kamali River it is more abundant than Q. lanata, which there tends to be confined to south-facing slopes. Further east it becomes scarce and east of the Kali Gandaki is rare or absent.

Artificial regeneration

The seed ripens between November and March, according to the locality, but ripe seed may remain on the trees for several months. About one year in two is a good seed year. In nurseries in the IHDP area an average of 700 plants were raised per kilogram of seeds.

Few records of trial plots are available. What there are indicate a height of about 40 cm at 1.5 years and 70 cm at 2.5 years, with a survival rate of 90 per cent or more, with the exception of Simkhara (2400 m) where at 2.4 years survival was 70 per cent and mean height 16 cm, indicating stagnation. According to Troup (1921) in a plantation 32 years old the trees averaged 17 m in height by 17 cm in diameter, with a mean annual increment of about 9 m3 ha-1; but this was considered to be considerably above the average.

Importance in Nepal

The wood is very heavy, weighing about 1020 kg m-3. The calorific value of the heartwood is 19,100 and of the sapwood 19,400 kJ kg-1 (Hawkins, 1982); hence it is a good fuelwood. It is not a good timber as it warps and splits badly, but is used occasionally for low-grade construction and, agricultural implements (Gamble, 1922). Because of its abundance it is a very important fodder tree in some localities. In Dehimando Panchayat of Mahakali Forest Division 78 per cent of all privately owned fodder trees were of this species (Hawkins and Malla, 1983). Together with Q. lanata, which has the same Nepali name, it is also used on a small scale in Dhading District. In Dolakha District it was of relatively low popularity, but a few farmers would be prepared to plant it. The leaves contain 8.2 per cent crude protein according to Panday (1982), 8.7 per cent (D. Bajracharya et al., 1985), but R. Y. Singh (1982) gives rather higher figures, ranging up to 12.6 per cent, and averaging about 10.6 per cent. The trees are lopped for fodder from December to June. An infusion of the gum from old trees is used to treat colds, and as an analgesic. The air-dry bark contains about 22 per cent tannin (Gamble, 1922).



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